The 800th Anniversary of the Foundation of Nizhny Novgorod
the mirror field of the disc bears a relief image of the National Coat of Arms of the Russian Federation, over it along the rim there is the semicircular inscription ‘РОССИЙСКАЯ ФЕДЕРАЦИЯ’ (RUSSIAN FEDERATION) framed on both sides by doubled rhombuses, below under the coat of arms there are indications of the precious metal and its fineness on the left and the fine metal content and the mint trade mark on the right, at the bottom in the centre, in three lines, there is an inscription ‘БАНК РОССИИ’ (BANK OF RUSSIA), the denomination of the coin ‘3 РУБЛЯ’ (3 RUBLES), and the year of issue ‘2021 г.’ (2021).
the mirror field of the disc features a relief image of the North-Eastern wall of the Nizhny Novgorod Kremlin and the Chkalov staircase going down to the Volga river; there are inscriptions: ‘НИЖНИЙ НОВГОРОД’ (NIZHNY NOVGOROD) along the upper rim and ‘800 ЛЕТ’ (800 YEARS) at the bottom.
Designers:E.V. Kramskaya (obverse), A.A. Brynza (reverse).
Sculptors: A.A. Dolgopolova (obverse), A.N. Bessonov (reverse).
Mint: Saint Petersburg Mint (СПМД).
Edge: 300 corrugations.
Nizhny Novgorod was founded in 1221 by Yury Vsevolodovich, the Grand Prince of Vladimir, who was the grandson of Prince Yury Dolgoruky, the founder of Moscow. The fortress was built in an extremely advantageous military and strategic place, i.e. on the mountain dominating the confluence of two rivers – Oka and Volga.
At the end of the 15th century, a stone kremlin was erected in the city to become an outstanding example of Russian fortification construction art. In the winter of 1612, the kremlin walls became the starting point for the militia troops headed by Kuzma Minin and Dmitry Pozharsky to fight the Polish-Lithuanian invaders.
Following the capture of Kazan and Astrakhan by Ivan the Terrible, Nizhny Novgorod became the centre of all trading routes between the Russian state and the East. Makaryevskaya Fair, the largest national fair, appeared and operated in this city.
In the 17th century, given relatively peaceful conditions, the Nizhny Novgorod Volga region was able to rapidly develop agriculture, industrial production, trade, and culture, which in many ways determined the level of commercial, industrial and artistic development of the entire country.
The 18th century was the period of the rise of Nizhny Novgorod as an administrative centre. In 1714, it was granted the status of a provincial city. This turning into the ‘capital’ of a significant Russian region had a favourable effect on the developments of all aspects of the city’s life: industry, trade, education, medicine, culture, sciences, and urban developments.
At the turn of the 18th and 19th centuries, Nizhny Novgorod became a major academic and cultural centre of the country. The importance of the city in terms of trade also increased, when the Nizhny Novgorod fair was built in 1822 to replace the burned-out complex of the Makaryevskaya fair. The former was of an exceptional importance in the history of Russian trade and in the formation of the all-Russian market and was one of the largest in the world. The biggest urban construction and development transformation took place in the 1830-1840s. Numerous public buildings and private trading houses remain the main artistically valuable architectural background of the historical landscape of the city.
Today, Nizhny Novgorod is the centre of the Volga Federal District, a million-plus city, and the fifth Russian city by the number of inhabitants. During its long history, Nizhny Novgorod has become a significant commercial and industrial centre, without losing its ancient beauty and magnificent views.