Peter the Great – 350th Anniversary of his Birth
a relief image of the National Coat of Arms of the Russian Federation, over it along the rim there is the semicircular inscription ‘РОССИЙСКАЯ ФЕДЕРАЦИЯ’ (RUSSIAN FEDERATION) framed on both sides by doubled rhombuses, below under the coat of arms there are indications of the precious metal and its fineness on the left and the fine metal content and the mint trade mark on the right, at the bottom in the centre, in three lines, there is an inscription ‘БАНК РОССИИ’ (BANK OF RUSSIA), the denomination of the coin ‘100 РУБЛЕЙ’ (100 RUBLES), and the year of issue ‘2022 г.’ (2022).
relief images of Peter the Great on horseback and an angel crowning Peter the Great with a victor’s wreath against the background of a panoramic view of the battle; on the left, there is a raster image showing scenes of the battles on land and sea, visible by turns when the angle of vision changes; at the bottom, along the rim, there is a relief inscription: ‘ПЕТР I • ПРЕОБРАЗОВАТЕЛЬ’ (PETER I • THE REFORMER).
Designers: E.V. Kramskaya (obverse), A.V. Baklanov, National Artist of Russia (reverse).
Sculptors: A.A. Dolgopolova (obverse), A.N. Bessonov (reverse).
Mint: Saint Petersburg Mint (СПМД).
Edge: 360 corrugations.
Peter I (1672–1725) is the last tsar of All Russia and the first Russian Emperor who radically changed the international, political, economic, social, and cultural image of Russia for the 29 years of his autocratic rule.
Peter I is remembered in Russian and world history as a talented military leader and naval commander. Peter I created the Russian navy and the regular army. At the age of 24, he went to war against the Ottoman Empire and took the city of Azov: for the first time, Russia got access to the southern seas. The Great Northern War against Sweden’s King Charles XII, which began in 1700, ended up in 1721, with Russia getting access to the Baltic Sea where Russia captured a strip of coastline from Vyborg to Riga. In the next three years, during the Persian campaign, the Russian Empire consolidated on the western coast of the Caspian Sea and gained control of Iranian provinces with the cities of Derbent, Baku, and Rasht. As a result, Russia became a great power. Not a single military campaign or diplomatic forum could be started in Europe without Russia since then. On 27 May 1703, on the lands conquered from the Swedes, Peter I founded Saint Petersburg (Russian: Sankt Pieterburkh) which became the capital of Russia in 1712.
Peter I began to build iron works throughout the country that made Russia the third largest ferrous metals producer in Europe. Peter I undertook a regional reform in Russia: he divided the whole country into governorates (Russian: guberniyas), provinces and districts, i.e., he created a vertical power structure to rule the country: tsar – governors (Russian: gubernators) – heads of provinces (Russian: voivodes) – heads of districts (Russian: zemsky commissar). He replaced the Boyar Duma with the Governing Senate which drafted new laws and monitored finance and justice in the country. Peter I made a great contribution to compulsory and vocational education in Russia, urged Russians to educate themselves and demonstrated that education was the key to their future career. He founded the Academy of Sciences and opened the first museum in Russia. After his travels to Europe, he set a course for European values, traditions and etiquette.